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[wangmeihan,chenyun,wangguanjie,leihao,sunlixian,xufen and zhangjun.Electrochromic Properties of Nano-columnar Porous WO3- x /TiO2 Thin Films[J].Rare Metal Materials and Engineering,2022,51(8):2732~2738.]
Electrochromic Properties of Nano-columnar Porous WO3- x /TiO2 Thin Films
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Received:July 12, 2021  Revised:September 23, 2021
DOI:
Key words: WO3- x /TiO2 thin films  nano-columnar  glancing angle  magnetron sputtering  electrochromic properties
Foundation item:国家自然科学基金(批准号:51302175 ).辽宁省自然科学基金(批准号:2019-ZD-0540). 广西信息材料重点实验室(桂林电子科技大学)(批准号:191007-K)
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wangmeihan,chenyun,wangguanjie,leihao,sunlixian,xufen and zhangjun  
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Abstract:
      Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) thin films were fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering at glancing angle α=0° or α=80°, and then titanium oxide (TiO2) was deposited on it. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the crystal structure, surface/cross-section morphologies, and surface chemical composition of the WO3-x/TiO2 thin films. Electrochromic properties of the WO3-x/TiO2 thin films were measured by electrochemical workstation in three-electrode system with 1 mol/L LiClO4/PC solution and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Results reveal that the WO3-x/TiO2 thin films present totally amorphous structure independent on glancing angles. As the glancing angle is kept at 80°, the nano-columnar porous thin film is obtained. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide (WO3-x) and stoichiometric titanium oxide (TiO2) are confirmed by XPS spectra of W 4f and Ti 2p, respectively. Compared with the dense thin film, the nano-columnar porous film needs a lower driving potential and presents faster response. The charge capacity of the nano-columnar porous film is calculated to be 83.78 mC, which is over twice higher than 30.83 mC of the dense film. The intercalation and deintercalation ion diffusion rates are determined to be Din=5.69×10-10 cm2·s-1 and Dde=5.08×10-10 cm2·s-1 at the applied potential ±1.2 V, respectively. The electrochromic cycle of the nano-columnar porous WO3-x/TiO2 thin film is more stable than that of pure WO3 thin film. The optical density varying (ΔOD) of the nano-columnar porous thin film is larger than that of the dense thin film due to the larger optical modulation amplitude in the whole visible wavelengths.